Publications

2021
Dan Gibson. 2021. “Platinum(IV) anticancer agents; are we en route to the holy grail or to a dead end?” Journal of inorganic biochemistry, 217, Pp. 111353. Abstract
Pt(IV) complexes are designed as prodrugs that are intended to overcome resistance. Pt(IV) prodrugs are activated inside cancer cells releasing cytotoxic Pt(II) drugs as well as two axial ligands that can be used to confer favorable pharmacological properties to the prodrug. The ligands can be innocent spectators, cancer targeting agents or bioactive moieties. The choice of axial ligands determines the chemical and pharmacological properties of the prodrugs. Over the years, several approaches were employed in attempts to increase the selectivity of the prodrugs to cancer cells and to utilize multi-action prodrugs to overcome resistance. In this review, we critically examine several of these approaches in order to evaluate the validity of some of the working hypotheses that are driving the current research.
Dan Gibson. 2021. “Platinum(IV) anticancer agents; are we en route to the holy grail or to a dead end?” Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 217. Abstract
Pt(IV) complexes are designed as prodrugs that are intended to overcome resistance. Pt(IV) prodrugs are activated inside cancer cells releasing cytotoxic Pt(II) drugs as well as two axial ligands that can be used to confer favorable pharmacological properties to the prodrug. The ligands can be innocent spectators, cancer targeting agents or bioactive moieties. The choice of axial ligands determines the chemical and pharmacological properties of the prodrugs. Over the years, several approaches were employed in attempts to increase the selectivity of the prodrugs to cancer cells and to utilize multi-action prodrugs to overcome resistance. In this review, we critically examine several of these approaches in order to evaluate the validity of some of the working hypotheses that are driving the current research.
Awanish Kumar and Abraham J. Domb. 2021. “Polymerization Enhancers for Cyanoacrylate Skin Adhesive.” Macromolecular Bioscience. Abstract
Cyanoacrylate glues are a renowned synthetic tissue sealant that cures rapidly through polymerization at room temperature, felicitating medical glues to treat skin wounds and surgical openings. Despite a wide range of cyanoacrylates available, only 2-octyl cyanoacrylates (OCA) provides the best biocompatibility. In this study, the polymerization and adhesive properties of 2-octyl cyanoacrylates (OCA) are explored in the presence of a highly biocompatible and biochemically inert polymer, poly(ethylene glycol) polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (PEG-POSS). The effect of PEG-POSS on the polymerization of OCA is examined on a plastic surface and over pig skin. A peel-test is performed to evaluate the strength of OCA adhesive properties between two pieces of pig skin samples. Additionally, thin films of OCA are prepared using different fillers and evaluated for tear test. The results reveal that when applied on the plastic or pig skin, PEG-POSS initiated polymerization in OCA yields a high molecular weight OCA polymer with much better adhesive properties compared to commercially available cyanoacrylate adhesives. The relative change in the molecular weights of OCA compared to commercially available cyanoacrylate bioadhesives such as Dermaflex is much higher. The pig skin peeling test shows that OCA needs higher peeling force than Dermaflex.
Alexey Bingor, Matityahu Azriel, Lavi Amiad, and Rami Yaka. 2021. “Potentiated Response of ERK/MAPK Signaling is Associated with Prolonged Withdrawal from Cocaine Behavioral Sensitization.” Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN. Abstract
Among the neuroadaptations underlying the expression of cocaine-induced behaviors are modifications in glutamate-mediated signaling and synaptic plasticity via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We hypothesized that exposure to cocaine leads to alterations in MAPK signaling in NAc neurons, which facilitates changes in the glutamatergic system and thus behavioral changes. We have previously shown that following withdrawal from cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization (BS), an increase in glutamate receptor expression and elevated MAPK signaling was evident. Here, we set out to determine the time course and behavioral consequences of inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) or NMDA receptors following withdrawal from BS. We found that inhibiting ERK by microinjection of U0126 into the NAc at 1 or 6 days following withdrawal from BS did not affect the expression of BS when challenged with cocaine at 14 days. However, inhibition of ERK 1 day before the cocaine challenge abolished the expression of BS. We also inhibited NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the NAc by microinjection of ifenprodil into the NAc following withdrawal from BS, which had no effect on the expression of BS. However, microinjection of ifenprodil to the NAc 1 day before challenge attenuated the expression of BS similar to ERK inhibition. These results suggest that following a prolonged period of withdrawal, NR2B-containing NMDA receptors and ERK activity play a critical role in the expression of cocaine behavioral sensitization.
Alexey Bingor, Matityahu Azriel, Lavi Amiad, and Rami Yaka. 2021. “Potentiated Response of ERK/MAPK Signaling is Associated with Prolonged Withdrawal from Cocaine Behavioral Sensitization.” Journal of Molecular Neuroscience. Abstract
Among the neuroadaptations underlying the expression of cocaine-induced behaviors are modifications in glutamate-mediated signaling and synaptic plasticity via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We hypothesized that exposure to cocaine leads to alterations in MAPK signaling in NAc neurons, which facilitates changes in the glutamatergic system and thus behavioral changes. We have previously shown that following withdrawal from cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization (BS), an increase in glutamate receptor expression and elevated MAPK signaling was evident. Here, we set out to determine the time course and behavioral consequences of inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) or NMDA receptors following withdrawal from BS. We found that inhibiting ERK by microinjection of U0126 into the NAc at 1 or 6 days following withdrawal from BS did not affect the expression of BS when challenged with cocaine at 14 days. However, inhibition of ERK 1 day before the cocaine challenge abolished the expression of BS. We also inhibited NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the NAc by microinjection of ifenprodil into the NAc following withdrawal from BS, which had no effect on the expression of BS. However, microinjection of ifenprodil to the NAc 1 day before challenge attenuated the expression of BS similar to ERK inhibition. These results suggest that following a prolonged period of withdrawal, NR2B-containing NMDA receptors and ERK activity play a critical role in the expression of cocaine behavioral sensitization.
Igor Khaliulin, Raimondo Ascione, Leonid N. Maslov, Haitham Amal, and M. Saadeh Suleiman. 2021. “Preconditioning or Postconditioning with 8-Br-cAMP-AM Protects the Heart against Regional Ischemia and Reperfusion: A Role for Mitochondrial Permeability Transition.” Cells, 10, 5. Abstract
The cAMP analogue 8-Br-cAMP-AM (8-Br) confers marked protection against global ischaemia/reperfusion of isolated perfused heart. We tested the hypothesis that 8-Br is also protective under clinically relevant conditions (regional ischaemia) when applied either before ischemia or at the beginning of reperfusion, and this effect is associated with the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). 8-Br (10 $μ$M) was administered to Langendorff-perfused rat hearts for 5 min either before or at the end of 30 min regional ischaemia. Ca2+-induced mitochondria swelling (a measure of MPTP opening) and binding of hexokinase II (HKII) to mitochondria were assessed following the drug treatment at preischaemia. Haemodynamic function and ventricular arrhythmias were monitored during ischaemia and 2 h reperfusion. Infarct size was evaluated at the end of reperfusion. 8-Br administered before ischaemia attenuated ventricular arrhythmias, improved haemodynamic function, and reduced infarct size during ischaemia/reperfusion. Application of 8-Br at the end of ischaemia protected the heart during reperfusion. 8-Br promoted binding of HKII to the mitochondria and reduced Ca2+-induced mitochondria swelling. Thus, 8-Br protects the heart when administered before regional ischaemia or at the beginning of reperfusion. This effect is associated with inhibition of MPTP via binding of HKII to mitochondria, which may underlie the protective mechanism.
The cAMP analogue 8-Br-cAMP-AM (8-Br) confers marked protection against global ischaemia/reperfusion of isolated perfused heart. We tested the hypothesis that 8-Br is also protective under clinically relevant conditions (regional ischaemia) when applied either before ischemia or at the beginning of reperfusion, and this effect is associated with the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). 8-Br (10 $μ$M) was administered to Langendorff-perfused rat hearts for 5 min either before or at the end of 30 min regional ischaemia. Ca(2+)-induced mitochondria swelling (a measure of MPTP opening) and binding of hexokinase II (HKII) to mitochondria were assessed following the drug treatment at preischaemia. Haemodynamic function and ventricular arrhythmias were monitored during ischaemia and 2 h reperfusion. Infarct size was evaluated at the end of reperfusion. 8-Br administered before ischaemia attenuated ventricular arrhythmias, improved haemodynamic function, and reduced infarct size during ischaemia/reperfusion. Application of 8-Br at the end of ischaemia protected the heart during reperfusion. 8-Br promoted binding of HKII to the mitochondria and reduced Ca(2+)-induced mitochondria swelling. Thus, 8-Br protects the heart when administered before regional ischaemia or at the beginning of reperfusion. This effect is associated with inhibition of MPTP via binding of HKII to mitochondria, which may underlie the protective mechanism.
Bruria Hirsh Raccah PharmD PhD, Yevgeni Erlichman, Arthur Pollak, Ilan Matok, and Mordechai Muszkat. 2021. “Prescribing Errors With Direct Oral Anticoagulants and Their Impact on the Risk of Bleeding in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.” Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology and therapeutics, Pp. 10742484211019657. Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Anticoagulants are associated with significant harm when used in error, but there are limited data on potential harm of inappropriate treatment with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). We conducted a matched case-control study among atrial fibrillation (AF) patients admitting the hospital with a chronic treatment with DOACs, in order to assess factors associated with the risk of major bleeding. METHODS: Patient data were documented using hospital's computerized provider order entry system. Patients identified with major bleeding were defined as cases and were matched with controls based on the duration of treatment with DOACs and number of chronic medications. Appropriateness of prescribing was assessed based on the relevant clinical guidelines. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the potential impact of safety-relevant prescribing errors with DOACs on major bleeding. RESULTS: A total number of 509 eligible admissions were detected during the study period, including 64 cases of major bleeding and 445 controls. The prevalence of prescribing errors with DOACs was 33%. Most prevalent prescribing errors with DOACs were "drug dose too low" (16%) and "non-recommended combination of drugs" (11%). Safety-relevant prescribing errors with DOACs were associated with major bleeding [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-4.12]. CONCLUSION: Prescribers should be aware of the potential negative impact of prescribing errors with DOACs and understand the importance of proper prescribing and regular follow-up.
Bruria Hirsh Raccah, Yevgeni Erlichman, Arthur Pollak, Ilan Matok, and Mordechai Muszkat. 2021. “Prescribing Errors With Direct Oral Anticoagulants and Their Impact on the Risk of Bleeding in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.” Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology and therapeutics, 26, 6, Pp. 601–610. Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Anticoagulants are associated with significant harm when used in error, but there are limited data on potential harm of inappropriate treatment with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). We conducted a matched case-control study among atrial fibrillation (AF) patients admitting the hospital with a chronic treatment with DOACs, in order to assess factors associated with the risk of major bleeding. METHODS: Patient data were documented using hospital's computerized provider order entry system. Patients identified with major bleeding were defined as cases and were matched with controls based on the duration of treatment with DOACs and number of chronic medications. Appropriateness of prescribing was assessed based on the relevant clinical guidelines. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the potential impact of safety-relevant prescribing errors with DOACs on major bleeding. RESULTS: A total number of 509 eligible admissions were detected during the study period, including 64 cases of major bleeding and 445 controls. The prevalence of prescribing errors with DOACs was 33%. Most prevalent prescribing errors with DOACs were "drug dose too low" (16%) and "non-recommended combination of drugs" (11%). Safety-relevant prescribing errors with DOACs were associated with major bleeding [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-4.12]. CONCLUSION: Prescribers should be aware of the potential negative impact of prescribing errors with DOACs and understand the importance of proper prescribing and regular follow-up.
Constantin Itin, Rinat Komargodski, Dinorah Barasch, Abraham J. Domb, and Amnon Hoffman. 2021. “Prolonged Delivery of Apomorphine Through the Buccal Mucosa, Towards a Noninvasive Sustained Administration Method in Parkinson's Disease: In Vivo Investigations in Pigs.” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 110, 4, Pp. 1824–1833. Abstract
In the current work, prolonged systemic delivery of apomorphine via buccal mucosa was shown to be a promising treatment for Parkinson's disease as a substitute for clinically utilized subcutaneous infusions. Due to extensive ‘first-pass' metabolism, apomorphine is administered parenterally to bypass liver metabolism. Drawbacks of parenteral administration cause low patient compliance and adherence to treatment. On the other hand, while also bypassing the liver, delivery through buccal mucosa has a superior safety profile, is less costly, lacks pain and discomfort, and possesses excellent accessibility, overall augmenting patient compliance. Current in vivo study in pigs showed: (1) steady plateau levels of apomorphine in plasma were obtained 30 min following administration and remained constant for 8 h until a delivery device was removed, (2) bioavailability of apomorphine was 55%–80% as opposed to <2% peroral and (3) simulation of the pharmacokinetic profile obtained in pigs predicted therapeutically relevant levels of apomorphine in human. Furthermore, antipyrine was incorporated as a permeation marker to enable mechanistic investigation of apomorphine release from the delivery device and its permeation through the buccal mucosa. In addition, limitations of an Ussing diffusion chamber as an ex vivo research tool were also discussed.
Madison N Myers, Maya Zachut, Joseph Tam, and Andres G Contreras. 2021. “A proposed modulatory role of the endocannabinoid system on adipose tissue metabolism and appetite in periparturient dairy cows.” Journal of animal science and biotechnology, 12, 1, Pp. 21. Abstract
To sustain the nutrient demands of rapid fetal growth, parturition, and milk synthesis, periparturient dairy cows mobilize adipose tissue fatty acid stores through lipolysis. This process induces an inflammatory response within AT that is resolved as lactation progresses; however, excessive and protracted lipolysis compounds the risk for metabolic and inflammatory diseases. The suppression of lipolytic action and inflammation, along with amplification of adipogenesis and lipogenesis, serve as prospective therapeutic targets for improving the health of periparturient dairy cows. Generally, the activation of cannabinoid receptors by endocannabinoids enhances adipogenesis and lipogenesis, suppresses lipolysis, and increases appetite in mammals. These biological effects of activating the endocannabinoid system open the possibility of harnessing the endocannabinoid system through nutritional intervention in dairy herds as a potential tool to improve dairy cows' health, although much is still to be revealed in this context. This review summarizes the current knowledge surrounding the components of the endocannabinoid system, elaborates on the metabolic effects of its activation, and explores the potential to modulate its activity in periparturient dairy cows.
Madison N. Myers, Maya Zachut, Joseph Tam, and G. Andres Contreras. 2021. “A proposed modulatory role of the endocannabinoid system on adipose tissue metabolism and appetite in periparturient dairy cows.” Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 12, 1. Abstract
To sustain the nutrient demands of rapid fetal growth, parturition, and milk synthesis, periparturient dairy cows mobilize adipose tissue fatty acid stores through lipolysis. This process induces an inflammatory response within AT that is resolved as lactation progresses; however, excessive and protracted lipolysis compounds the risk for metabolic and inflammatory diseases. The suppression of lipolytic action and inflammation, along with amplification of adipogenesis and lipogenesis, serve as prospective therapeutic targets for improving the health of periparturient dairy cows. Generally, the activation of cannabinoid receptors by endocannabinoids enhances adipogenesis and lipogenesis, suppresses lipolysis, and increases appetite in mammals. These biological effects of activating the endocannabinoid system open the possibility of harnessing the endocannabinoid system through nutritional intervention in dairy herds as a potential tool to improve dairy cows' health, although much is still to be revealed in this context. This review summarizes the current knowledge surrounding the components of the endocannabinoid system, elaborates on the metabolic effects of its activation, and explores the potential to modulate its activity in periparturient dairy cows.
Bruria Hirsh Raccah, Alona Yanovsky, Nir Treves, Victoria Rotshild, Christel Renoux, Haim Danenberg, Ran Eliaz, and Ilan Matok. 2021. “Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors and the risk for neurocognitive adverse events: A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression.” International journal of cardiology, 335, Pp. 7–14. Abstract
{BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that lipid lowering therapy causes impaired cognitive changes. The association between the use of Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors and the risk of neurocognitive adverse events remains unclear. This meta-analysis aims to assess neurocognitive safety of PCSK9 inhibitors in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS AND RESULTS: The research was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase and Cochrane library were searched through September 2019. Selection criteria included RCTs that addressed to neurocognitive adverse events of participants using Alirocumab, Evolocumab or Bococizumab, with a follow up duration of at least 6 months. The search results were screened by two independent reviewers. Safety data from included papers were extracted. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool results, and meta-regression was utilized when applicable. Twenty-one studies were included. Among 59,733 patients, 31,611 were treated with PCSK9 inhibitors. The follow-up period ranged from 24 weeks to 48 months. No significant difference in the incidence of neurocognitive adverse effects between the groups was identified (RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86-1.19, I(2) = 3%). Similar results were seen in subgroup analysis for each of the medications (alirocumab- RR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.72-1.08, I(2) = 0%, evolocumab- RR = 1.42, 95% CI: 0.74-2.73, I(2) = 55%). A meta-regression analysis for evolocumab revealed that prolonged study duration was associated with decreased risk for neurocognitive adverse events ($\beta$(week) = -0.0037
Bruria Hirsh Raccah, Alona Yanovsky, Nir Treves, Victoria Rotshild, Christel Renoux, Haim Danenberg, Ran Eliaz, and Ilan Matok. 2021. “Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors and the risk for neurocognitive adverse events: A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression.” International Journal of Cardiology, 335, Pp. 7–14. Abstract
{Background: It has been suggested that lipid lowering therapy causes impaired cognitive changes. The association between the use of Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors and the risk of neurocognitive adverse events remains unclear. This meta-analysis aims to assess neurocognitive safety of PCSK9 inhibitors in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods and results: The research was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase and Cochrane library were searched through September 2019. Selection criteria included RCTs that addressed to neurocognitive adverse events of participants using Alirocumab, Evolocumab or Bococizumab, with a follow up duration of at least 6 months. The search results were screened by two independent reviewers. Safety data from included papers were extracted. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool results, and meta-regression was utilized when applicable. Twenty-one studies were included. Among 59,733 patients, 31,611 were treated with PCSK9 inhibitors. The follow-up period ranged from 24 weeks to 48 months. No significant difference in the incidence of neurocognitive adverse effects between the groups was identified (RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86–1.19
Shira Mencer, Maryam Kartawy, Felix Lendenfeld, Huda Soluh, Manish Kumar Tripathi, Igor Khaliulin, and Haitham Amal. 2021. “Proteomics of autism and Alzheimer's mouse models reveal common alterations in mTOR signaling pathway.” Translational psychiatry, 11, 1, Pp. 480. Abstract
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two different neurological disorders that share common clinical features, such as language impairment, executive functions, and motor problems. A genetic convergence has been proposed as well. However, the molecular mechanisms of these pathologies are still not well understood. Protein S-nitrosylation (SNO), the nitric oxide (NO)-mediated posttranslational modification, targets key proteins implicated in synaptic and neuronal functions. Previously, we have shown that NO and SNO are involved in the InsG3680(+/+) ASD and P301S AD mouse models. Here, we performed large-scale computational biology analysis of the SNO-proteome followed by biochemical validation to decipher the shared mechanisms between the pathologies. This analysis pointed to the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway as one of the shared molecular mechanisms. Activation of mTOR in the cortex of both mouse models was confirmed by western blots that showed increased phosphorylation of RPS6, a major substrate of mTORC1. Other molecular alterations affected by SNO and shared between the two mouse models, such as synaptic-associated processes, PKA signaling, and cytoskeleton-related processes were also detected. This is the first study to decipher the SNO-related shared mechanisms between SHANK3 and MAPT mutations. Understanding the involvement of SNO in neurological disorders and its intersection between ASD and AD might help developing an effective novel therapy for both neuropathologies.
Victoria Nahum and Abraham J Domb. 2021. “Recent Developments in Solid Lipid Microparticles for Food Ingredients Delivery.” Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 10, 2. Abstract
Health food has become a prominent force in the market place, influencing many food industries to focus on numerous bioactive compounds to reap benefits from its properties. Use of these compounds in food matrices has several limitations. Most of the food bio-additives are sensitive compounds that may quickly decompose in both food and within the gastrointestinal tract. Since most of these bioactives are highly or partially lipophilic molecules, they possess very low water solubility and insufficient dispersibility, leading to poor bioavailability. Thus, various methods of microencapsulation of large number of food bioactives have been studied. For encapsulation of hydrophobic compounds several lipid carriers and lipid platforms have been studied, including emulsions, microemulsions, micelles, liposomes, and lipid nano- and microparticles. Solid lipid particles (SLP) are a promising delivery system, can both deliver bioactive compounds, reduce their degradation, and permit slow and sustained release. Solid lipid particles have important advantages compared to other polymer carriers in light of their simple production technology, including scale up ability, higher loading capacity, extremely high biocompatibility, and usually low cost. This delivery system provides improved stability, solubility in various matrixes, bioavailability, and targeting properties. This article reviews recent studies on microencapsulation of selected bioactive food ingredients in solid lipid-based carriers from a point of view of production methods, characteristics of obtained particles, loading capability, stability, and release profile.
Victoria Nahum and Abraham J. Domb. 2021. “Recent developments in solid lipid microparticles for food ingredients delivery.” Foods, 10, 2, Pp. 1–25. Abstract
Health food has become a prominent force in the market place, influencing many food industries to focus on numerous bioactive compounds to reap benefits from its properties. Use of these compounds in food matrices has several limitations. Most of the food bio-additives are sensitive compounds that may quickly decompose in both food and within the gastrointestinal tract. Since most of these bioactives are highly or partially lipophilic molecules, they possess very low water solubility and insufficient dispersibility, leading to poor bioavailability. Thus, various methods of microencapsulation of large number of food bioactives have been studied. For encapsulation of hydrophobic compounds several lipid carriers and lipid platforms have been studied, including emulsions, microemulsions, micelles, liposomes, and lipid nano-and microparticles. Solid lipid particles (SLP) are a promising delivery system, can both deliver bioactive compounds, reduce their degradation, and permit slow and sustained release. Solid lipid particles have important advantages compared to other polymer carriers in light of their simple production technology, including scale up ability, higher loading capacity, extremely high biocompatibility, and usually low cost. This delivery system provides improved stability, solubility in various matrixes, bioavailability, and targeting properties. This article reviews recent studies on microencapsulation of selected bioactive food ingredients in solid lipid-based carriers from a point of view of production methods, characteristics of obtained particles, loading capability, stability, and release profile.
Wajeha Hamoudi, Felix von Lendenfeld, Maryam Kartawy, Shira Mencer, Huda Suloh, Igor Khaliulin, and Haitham Amal. 2021. “Regional Differences in S-Nitrosylation in the Cortex, Striatum, and Hippocampus of Juvenile Male Mice.” Journal of Molecular Neuroscience. Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional neurotransmitter that plays a major role in neuronal and synaptic functions. S-nitrosylation (SNO), the NO-mediated protein posttransitional modification (PTM), is known to regulate physiological and pathological processes in the brain. However, the physiological role in different neuroanatomical brain regions has not been well investigated. To understand the role of SNO in the brain of juvenile WT mice, we used SNOTRAP technology. We mapped the SNO-proteome in three different neuroanatomical regions: cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. By conducting systems biology analysis, we found that the three brain regions share similar biological processes (BP) including biogenesis and developmental processes. Exclusive and different BP and molecular functions were found for each of the regions. Unraveling the BP and signaling mechanisms of SNO in the cortex, striatum, and hippocampus may help to understand the functional differences between the three regions under physiological conditions.
Saja Baraghithy, Yael Soae, Dekel Assaf, Liad Hinden, Shiran Udi, Adi Drori, Yankel Gabet, and Joseph Tam. 2021. “Renal Proximal Tubule Cell Cannabinoid-1 Receptor Regulates Bone Remodeling and Mass via a Kidney-to-Bone Axis.” Cells, 10, 2. Abstract
The renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs), well-known for maintaining glucose and mineral homeostasis, play a critical role in the regulation of kidney function and bone remodeling. Deterioration in RPTC function may therefore lead to the development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and osteoporosis. Previously, we have shown that the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB(1)R) modulates both kidney function as well as bone remodeling and mass via its direct role in RPTCs and bone cells, respectively. Here we employed genetic and pharmacological approaches that target CB(1)R, and found that its specific nullification in RPTCs preserves bone mass and remodeling both under normo- and hyper-glycemic conditions, and that its chronic blockade prevents the development of diabetes-induced bone loss. These protective effects of negatively targeting CB(1)R specifically in RPTCs were associated with its ability to modulate erythropoietin (EPO) synthesis, a hormone known to affect bone mass and remodeling. Our findings highlight a novel molecular mechanism by which CB(1)R in RPTCs remotely regulates skeletal homeostasis via a kidney-to-bone axis that involves EPO.
Claire Thornton, Etty Grad, and Rami Yaka. 2021. “The role of mitochondria in cocaine addiction.” Biochemical Journal, 478, 4, Pp. 749–764. Abstract
The incidence of cocaine abuse is increasing especially in the U.K. where the rates are among the highest in Europe. In addition to its role as a psychostimulant, cocaine has profound effect on brain metabolism, impacting glycolysis and impairing oxidative phosphorylation. Cocaine exposure alters metabolic gene expression and protein networks in brain regions including the prefrontal cortex, the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens, the principal nuclei of the brain reward system. Here, we focus on how cocaine impacts mitochondrial function, in particular through alterations in electron transport chain function, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress (OS), mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy. Finally, we describe the impact of cocaine on brain energy metabolism in the developing brain following prenatal exposure. The plethora of mitochondrial functions altered following cocaine exposure suggest that therapies maintaining mitochondrial functional integrity may hold promise in mitigating cocaine pathology and addiction.