Publications

2021
Moriya Weitz, Alaa Khayat, and Rami Yaka. 2021. “GABAergic projections to the ventral tegmental area govern cocaine-conditioned reward.” Addiction Biology, 26, 4. Abstract
Elevated dopamine (DA) levels in the reward system underlie various drug-related behaviors, including addiction. As a major DA source in the reward system, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is highly regulated by GABAergic inputs projected from different brain regions. It was previously shown that cocaine exposure reduces GABAA-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in VTA DA neurons; however, the specific GABAergic input underlying this inhibitory effect remains unknown. Here, using optogenetics, we separately activate and characterize different GABAergic afferents innervating the VTA, focusing on the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). GABAA-mediated IPSCs were recorded from VTA DA neurons, and the effect of DA-induced inhibition was measured in an afferent-specific manner. In addition, to examine the effect of enhanced GABAergic tone on the rewarding properties of cocaine, we exogenously activated the different GABAergic inputs during the acquisition phase of cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP). We found that acute cocaine exposure strongly attenuates GABAA-mediated IPSCs in VTA DA neurons from both inhibitory sources. Furthermore, exogenous light activation of both RMTg and NAc afferents in the VTA during the acquisition of cocaine-CPP significantly reduced the rewarding properties of cocaine. This behavioral observation was correlated with the reduction in the neuronal activity of VTA DA neurons as measured by the expression of c-fos. Together, these results emphasize the critical role of these GABAergic inputs to the VTA in modulating and potentially interrupting cocaine reward.
Paweł Paśko, Agnieszka Galanty, Małgorzata Tyszka-Czochara, Paweł Żmudzki, Paweł Zagrodzki, Joanna Gdula-Argasińska, Ewelina Prochownik, and Shela Gorinstein. 2021. “Health Promoting vs Anti-nutritive Aspects of Kohlrabi Sprouts, a Promising Candidate for Novel Functional Food.” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 76, 1, Pp. 76–82. Abstract
Kohlrabi sprouts are just gaining popularity as the new example of functional food. The study was focused on the influence of germination time and light conditions on glucosinolates, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and fatty acids content in kohlrabi sprouts, in comparison to the bulbs. The effect of kohlrabi products on SW480, HepG2 and BJ cells was also determined. The length of sprouting time and light availability significantly influenced the concentrations of the phenolic compounds. Significant differences in progoitrin concentrations were observed between the sprouts harvested in light and in the darkness, with significantly lower content for darkness conditions. Erucic acid was the dominant fatty acid found in sprouts (14.5–34.5%). Sprouts and bulbs were less toxic to normal than to cancer cells. The sprouts stimulated necrosis (56.4%) more than apoptosis (34.1%) in SW480 cells, while the latter effect was predominant for the bulbs. Both sprouts and bulbs caused rather necrosis (45.5 and 63.9%) than apoptosis (32 and 32.5%) in HepG2 cells. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
Raviv Dharan, Asaf Shemesh, Abigail Millgram, Ran Zalk, Gabriel A. Frank, Yael Levi-Kalisman, Israel Ringel, and Uri Raviv. 2021. “Hierarchical Assembly Pathways of Spermine-Induced Tubulin Conical-Spiral Architectures.” ACS Nano, 15, 5, Pp. 8836–8847. Abstract
Tubulin, an essential cytoskeletal protein, assembles into various morphologies by interacting with an array of cellular factors. One of these factors is the endogenous polyamine spermine, which may promote and stabilize tubulin assemblies. Nevertheless, the assembled structures and their formation pathways are poorly known. Here we show that spermine induced the in vitro assembly of tubulin into several hierarchical architectures based on a tubulin conical-spiral subunit. Using solution X-ray scattering and cryo-TEM, we found that with progressive increase of spermine concentration tubulin dimers assembled into conical-frustum-spirals of increasing length, containing up to three helical turns. The subunits with three helical turns were then assembled into tubules through base-to-top packing and formed antiparallel bundles of tubulin conical-spiral tubules in a distorted hexagonal symmetry. Further increase of the spermine concentration led to inverted tubulin tubules assembled in hexagonal bundles. Time-resolved experiments revealed that tubulin assemblies formed at higher spermine concentrations assembled from intermediates, similar to those formed at low spermine concentrations. These results are distinct from the classical transition between twisted ribbons, helical, and tubular assemblies, and provide insight into the versatile morphologies that tubulin can form. Furthermore, they may contribute to our understanding of the interactions that control the composition and construction of protein-based biomaterials.
Carmil Azran, Nirvana Hanhan-Shamshoum, Tujan Irshied, Tomer Ben-Shushan, Dror Dicker, Arik Dahan, and Ilan Matok. 2021. “Hypothyroidism and levothyroxine therapy following bariatric surgery: a systematic review, meta-analysis, network meta-analysis, and meta-regression.” Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases, 17, 6, Pp. 1206–1217. Abstract
Background: Many health benefits of bariatric surgery are known and well-studied, but there is scarce data on the benefits of bariatric surgery on the thyroid function. Objective: We aimed to make a meta-analysis regarding the impact of bariatric surgery on thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, levothyroxine dose, and the status of subclinical hypothyroidism. Setting: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched up to December 2020 for relevant clinical studies. Random-effects model was used to pool results. Network meta-analysis was performed, incorporating direct and indirect comparisons among different types of bariatric surgery. Meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of moderator variables on TSH levels and required levothyroxine dose after surgery. We followed the PRISMA guidelines for data selection and extraction. PROSPERO registry number: CRD42018105739. Results: A total of 28 studies involving 1284 patients were included. There was a statistically significant decrease in TSH levels after bariatric surgery (mean difference = −1.66 mU/L, 95%CI [−2.29, −1.03], P <.0001). In meta-regression analysis, we found that the following moderator variables: length of follow-up, mean age, baseline TSH, and preoperative thyroid function, could explain 1%, 43%, 68%, and 88% of the between-study variance, respectively. Furthermore, subclinical hypothyroidism was completely resolved in 87% of patients following bariatric surgery. In addition, there was a statistically significant decrease of levothyroxine dose in frank hypothyroid patients following bariatric surgery (mean difference = −13.20 mcg/d, 95%CI [−19.69, −6.71]). In network meta-analysis, we found that discontinuing or decreasing levothyroxine dose was significant following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 1 anastomosis gastric bypass, and sleeve gastrectomy, (OR = 31.02, 95%CI [10.34, 93.08]), (OR = 41.73, 95%CI [2.04, 854.69]), (OR = 104.03, 95%CI [35.79, 302.38]), respectively. Conclusions: Based on our meta-analysis, bariatric surgery is associated with the resolution of subclinical hypothyroidism, a decrease in TSH levels, and a decrease in levothyroxine dose.
Rajamohamed Beema Shafreen, Selvaraj Alagu Lakshmi, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Young-Mo Kim, Joseph Deutsch, Elena Katrich, and Shela Gorinstein. 2021. “In Vitro and In Silico Interaction Studies with Red Wine Polyphenols against Different Proteins from Human Serum.” Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 26, 21. Abstract
Previous reports have shown that consumption of wine has several health benefits; however, there are different types of wine. In the present study, red wines were investigated for their compositions of active ingredients. The interaction of each component in terms of its binding mode with different serum proteins was unraveled, and the components were implicated as drug candidates in clinical settings. Overall, the study indicates that red wines have a composition of flavonoids, non-flavonoids, and phenolic acids that can interact with the key regions of proteins to enhance their biological activity. Among them, rutin, resveratrol, and tannic acid have shown good binding affinity and possess beneficial properties that can enhance their role in clinical applications.
Sereen Sandouka and Tawfeeq Shekh-Ahmad. 2021. “Induction of the Nrf2 Pathway by Sulforaphane Is Neuroprotective in a Rat Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Model.” Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 10, 11. Abstract
Epilepsy is a chronic disease of the brain that affects over 65 million people worldwide. Acquired epilepsy is initiated by neurological insults, such as status epilepticus, which can result in the generation of ROS and induction of oxidative stress. Suppressing oxidative stress by upregulation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been shown to be an effective strategy to increase endogenous antioxidant defences, including in brain diseases, and can ameliorate neuronal damage and seizure occurrence in epilepsy. Here, we aim to test the neuroprotective potential of a naturally occurring Nrf2 activator sulforaphane, in in vitro epileptiform activity model and a temporal lobe epilepsy rat model. Sulforaphane significantly decreased ROS generation during epileptiform activity, restored glutathione levels, and prevented seizure-like activity-induced neuronal cell death. When given to rats after 2 h of kainic acid-induced status epilepticus, sulforaphane significantly increased the expression of Nrf2 and related antioxidant genes, improved oxidative stress markers, and increased the total antioxidant capacity in both the plasma and hippocampus. In addition, sulforaphane significantly decreased status epilepticus-induced neuronal cell death. Our results demonstrate that Nrf2 activation following an insult to the brain exerts a neuroprotective effect by reducing neuronal death, increasing the antioxidant capacity, and thus may also modify epilepsy development.
Batya Isaacson, Maya Baron, Rachel Yamin, Gilad Bachrach, Francesca Levi-Schaffer, Zvi Granot, and Ofer Mandelboim. 2021. “The inhibitory receptor CD300a is essential for neutrophil-mediated clearance of urinary tract infection in mice.” European Journal of Immunology, 51, 9, Pp. 2218–2224. Abstract
Neutrophils play a crucial role in immune defense against and clearance of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC)-mediated urinary tract infection, the most common bacterial infection in healthy humans. CD300a is an inhibitory receptor that binds phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, presented on the membranes of apoptotic cells. CD300a binding to phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, also known as the “eat me” signal, mediates immune tolerance to dying cells. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that CD300a plays an important role in the neutrophil-mediated immune response to UPEC-induced urinary tract infection. We show that CD300a-deficient neutrophils have impaired phagocytic abilities and despite their increased accumulation at the site of infection, they are unable to reduce bacterial burden in the bladder, which results in significant exacerbation of infection and worse host outcome. Finally, we demonstrate that UPEC's pore forming toxin $\alpha$-hemolysin induces upregulation of the CD300a ligand on infected bladder epithelial cells, signaling to neutrophils to be cleared.
Noam Y Steinman and Abraham J Domb. 2021. “Instantaneous Degelling Thermoresponsive Hydrogel.” Gels (Basel, Switzerland), 7, 4. Abstract
Responsive polymeric hydrogels have found wide application in the clinic as injectable, biocompatible, and biodegradable materials capable of controlled release of therapeutics. In this article, we introduce a thermoresponsive polymer hydrogel bearing covalent disulfide bonds. The cold aqueous polymer solution forms a hydrogel upon heating to physiological temperatures and undergoes slow degradation by hydrolytic cleavage of ester bonds. The disulfide functionality allows for immediate reductive cleavage of the redox-sensitive bond embedded within the polymer structure, affording the option of instantaneous hydrogel collapse. Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic acid)-S-S-poly(lactic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PLA-SS-PLA-PEG) copolymer was synthesized by grafting PEG to PLA-SS-PLA via urethane linkages. The aqueous solution of the resultant copolymer was a free-flowing solution at ambient temperatures and formed a hydrogel above 32 °C. The immediate collapsibility of the hydrogel was displayed via reaction with NaBH(4) as a relatively strong reducing agent, yet stability was displayed even in glutathione solution, in which the polymer degraded slowly by hydrolytic degradation. The polymeric hydrogel is capable of either long-term or immediate degradation and thus represents an attractive candidate as a biocompatible material for the controlled release of drugs.
Adi Jacob Berger, Elinor Gigi, Lana Kupershmidt, Zohar Meir, Nancy Gavert, Yaara Zwang, Amir Prior, Shlomit Gilad, Uzi Harush, Izhak Haviv, Salomon M Stemmer, Galia Blum, Emmanuelle Merquiol, Mariya Mardamshina, Sivan Kaminski Strauss, Gilgi Friedlander, Jair Bar, Iris Kamer, Yitzhak Reizel, Tamar Geiger, Yitzhak Pilpel, Yishai Levin, Amos Tanay, Baruch Barzel, Hadas Reuveni, and Ravid Straussman. 2021. “IRS1 phosphorylation underlies the non-stochastic probability of cancer cells to persist during EGFR inhibition therapy.” Nature cancer, 2, 10, Pp. 1055–1070. Abstract
Stochastic transition of cancer cells between drug-sensitive and drug-tolerant persister phenotypes has been proposed to play a key role in non-genetic resistance to therapy. Yet, we show here that cancer cells actually possess a highly stable inherited chance to persist (CTP) during therapy. This CTP is non-stochastic, determined pre-treatment and has a unimodal distribution ranging from 0 to almost 100%. Notably, CTP is drug specific. We found that differential serine/threonine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) protein determines the CTP of lung and of head and neck cancer cells under epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition, both in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, the first-in-class IRS1 inhibitor NT219 was highly synergistic with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy across multiple in vitro and in vivo models. Elucidation of drug-specific mechanisms that determine the degree and stability of cellular CTP may establish a framework for the elimination of cancer persisters, using new rationally designed drug combinations.
Pier Giorgio Puzzovio and Francesca Levi-Schaffer. 2021. “Latest Progresses in Allergic Diseases Biomarkers: Asthma and Atopic Dermatitis.” Frontiers in pharmacology, 12, Pp. 747364. Abstract
In the last years, the understanding of the pathologic mechanisms of asthma and atopic dermatitis, both characterized by allergic inflammation, has greatly improved. However, it is evident that both diseases present with high heterogeneity, which complicates the diagnosis and the therapeutic approach of the patients. Moreover, some of the currently available strategies to treat asthma and atopic dermatitis are still mostly controlling the symptoms, but not to lead towards full healing, thus having these two diseases labelled as unmet clinical needs by WHO. Therefore, the "one-size-fits-all" strategy is outdated for asthma and atopic dermatitis, and there is the need of better methods to clearly diagnose the disease and tailor the therapy according to the specific symptomatology. In this regard, the use of biomarkers has been advanced in order to characterize both diseases according to their clinical signs and to facilitate the subsequent treatment. Despite the advancements made in this regard, there is still need for better and more sensitive biomarkers and for less invasive sampling methodologies, with the aim to diagnose specifically each manifestation of asthma and atopic dermatitis and to provide the best treatment with the least suffering for the patients.
Maya Berlin, Dana Barchel, Anna Brik, Elkana Kohn, Ayelet Livne, Rimona Keidar, Josef Tovbin, Moshe Betser, Miki Moskovich, Dror Mandel, Ronit Lubetzky, Amit Ovental, Pam Factor-Litvak, Malka Britzi, Tomer Ziv-Baran, Ronit Koren, Chagit Klieger, Matitiahu Berkovitch, Ilan Matok, and Ronella Marom. 2021. “Maternal and Newborn Thyroid Hormone, and the Association With Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Burden: The EHF (Environmental Health Fund) Birth Cohort.” Frontiers in pediatrics, 9, Pp. 705395. Abstract
Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants found in human tissues. PCBs can be transferred through the placenta and may disrupt the maternal thyroid homeostasis, and affect fetal thyroid hormone production. Several studies have shown that intrauterine exposure to PCBs might be associated with abnormal levels of thyroid hormones in mothers and their offspring. Objectives: To examine the associations between environmental exposure to PCBs and thyroid hormone levels in mothers and newborns. Methods: The EHF-Assaf-Harofeh-Ichilov cohort includes 263 mothers-newborns dyads. A total of 157 mother-newborn dyads had both PCBs and thyroid function measures. Regression models were used to estimate associations between maternal PCB exposure and maternal and newborn thyroid function, controlling for possible confounders. Results: Four PCBs congeners were analyzed: PCBs 118, 138, 153, and 180. ∑PCBs median (IQR) level was 14.65 (2.83-68.14) ng/g lipids. The median maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level was 2.66 (0.70-8.23) $μ$IU/ml, the median maternal free thyroxine (FT4) level was 12.44 (11.27-13.53) $μ$g/dL, the median maternal thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO Ab) level was 9.6 (7.36-12.51) IU/mL. Newborns' median total thyroxine (T4) level was 14.8 (7.6-24.9) $μ$g/dL. No association was found between exposure to different congeners or to ∑PCBs and maternal TSH, FT4, thyroglobulin autoantibodies (Tg Ab), TPO Ab and newborn total T4 levels. In multivariable analysis a 1% change in ∑PCBs level was significantly associated with a 0.57% change in maternal TSH levels in women with body mass index (BMI) < 19. The same association was observed for each of the studied PCB congeners. Maternal TPO Ab levels statistically significantly increased by 0.53 and 0.46% for 1% increase in PCB 118 and 153 congeners, respectively. In women with BMI > 25, the association between the PCBs levels and maternal TSH levels was in the opposite direction. No association was found in women with normal BMI (19-24.9). Conclusions: Background exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of some PCBs can alter thyroid hormone homeostasis in pregnant women and might be associated with abnormal TSH levels and TPO-Ab in women with low BMI. However, these findings require further investigation.
Noora Ottman, Mauricio Barrientos-Somarribas, Nanna Fyhrquist, Helen Alexander, Lukas Wisgrill, Peter Olah, Sophia Tsoka, Dario Greco, Francesca Levi-Schaffer, Vassili Soumelis, Jens M Schröder, Juha Kere, Frank O Nestle, Jonathan Barker, Annamari Ranki, Antti Lauerma, Bernhard Homey, Björn Andersson, and Harri Alenius. 2021. “Microbial and transcriptional differences elucidate atopic dermatitis heterogeneity across skin sites.” Allergy, 76, 4, Pp. 1173–1187. Abstract
It is well established that different sites in healthy human skin are colonized by distinct microbial communities due to different physiological conditions. However, few studies have explored microbial heterogeneity between skin sites in diseased skin, such as atopic dermatitis (AD) lesions. To address this issue, we carried out deep analysis of the microbiome and transcriptome in the skin of a large cohort of AD patients and healthy volunteers, comparing two physiologically different sites: upper back and posterior thigh. Microbiome samples and biopsies were obtained from both lesional and nonlesional skin to identify changes related to the disease process. Transcriptome analysis revealed distinct disease-related gene expression profiles depending on anatomical location, with keratinization dominating the transcriptomic signatures in posterior thigh, and lipid metabolism in the upper back. Moreover, we show that relative abundance of Staphylococcus aureus is associated with disease severity in the posterior thigh, but not in the upper back. Our results suggest that AD may select for similar microbes in different anatomical locations-an "AD-like microbiome," but distinct microbial dynamics can still be observed when comparing posterior thigh to upper back. This study highlights the importance of considering the variability across skin sites when studying the development of skin inflammation.
Limor Rubin, Collin T. Stabler, Adi Schumacher-Klinger, Cezary Marcinkiewicz, Peter I. Lelkes, and Philip Lazarovici. 2021. “Neurotrophic factors and their receptors in lung development and implications in lung diseases.” Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews, 59, Pp. 84–94. Abstract
Although lung innervation has been described by many studies in humans and rodents, the regulation of the respiratory system induced by neurotrophins is not fully understood. Here, we review current knowledge on the role of neurotrophins and the expression and function of their receptors in neurogenesis, vasculogenesis and during the embryonic development of the respiratory tree and highlight key implications relevant to respiratory diseases.
Limor Rubin, Collin T Stabler, Adi Schumacher-Klinger, Cezary Marcinkiewicz, Peter I Lelkes, and Philip Lazarovici. 2021. “Neurotrophic factors and their receptors in lung development and implications in lung diseases.” Cytokine & growth factor reviews, 59, Pp. 84–94. Abstract
Although lung innervation has been described by many studies in humans and rodents, the regulation of the respiratory system induced by neurotrophins is not fully understood. Here, we review current knowledge on the role of neurotrophins and the expression and function of their receptors in neurogenesis, vasculogenesis and during the embryonic development of the respiratory tree and highlight key implications relevant to respiratory diseases.
Hadas Pahima, Pier Giorgio Puzzovio, and Francesca Levi-Schaffer. 2021. “A novel mast cell-dependent allergic peritonitis model.” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 205, 3, Pp. 306–315. Abstract
Typical murine models of allergic inflammation are induced by the combination of ovalbumin and aluminum hydroxide. However, accumulating evidence indicates that, in models of asthma and atopic dermatitis, allergic inflammation can be generated in the absence of aluminum hydroxide. Moreover, co-administration of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B with ovalbumin can enhance inflammation. The objective of this study was to establish a rapid and mast cell-dependent murine model of allergic inflammation by inducing allergic peritonitis using ovalbumin and S. aureus enterotoxin B. Allergic peritonitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by subcutaneous sensitization and intraperitoneal challenge with ovalbumin and S. aureus enterotoxin B. Disease characteristics were assessed by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), trypan blue exclusion and colorimetric assays. The time–course of the allergic peritonitis revealed a peak of peritoneal inflammation 48 h after challenge, as assessed by total cells and eosinophil counts. The decrease of cell numbers started 96 h post-challenge, with complete clearance within 168 h. Moreover, significantly higher levels of tryptase and increased vascular permeability were found 30 min following challenge. Allergic inflammation induction by ovalbumin and S. aureus enterotoxin B was impaired in mast cell-deficient mice and partially restored by mice reconstitution with bone marrow-derived mast cells, indicating the mast cell role in this model. We present a novel model of allergic peritonitis that is mast cell-dependent, simple and robust. Moreover, the use of S. aureus enterotoxin B better resembles human allergic inflammation, which is known to be characterized by the colonization of S. aureus.
Ihab Abd-Elrahman, Taher Nassar, Noha Khairi, Riki Perlman, Simon Benita, and Dina Ben Yehuda. 2021. “Novel targeted mtLivin nanoparticles treatment for disseminated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.” Oncogene, 40, 2, Pp. 334–344. Abstract
We previously showed that Livin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein, is specifically cleaved to produce a truncated protein, tLivin, and demonstrated its paradoxical proapoptotic activity. We further demonstrated that mini-tLivin (MTV), a 70 amino acids derivative of tLivin, is a proapoptotic protein as potent as tLivin. Based on these findings, in this study we aimed to develop a venue to target MTV for the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). MTV was conjugated to poly (lactide-co-glycolic acid) surface-activated nanoparticles (NPs). In order to target MTV-NPs we also conjugated CD40 ligand (CD40L) to the surface of the NPs and evaluated the efficacy of the bifunctional CD40L-MTV-NPs. In vitro, CD40L-MTV-NPs elicited significant apoptosis of DLBCL cells. In a disseminated mouse model of DLBCL, 37.5% of MTV-NPs treated mice survived at the end of the experiment. Targeting MTV-NPs using CD40L greatly improved survival and 71.4% of these mice survived. CD40L-MTV-NPs also greatly reduced CNS involvement of DLBCL. Only 20% of these mice presented infiltration of lymphoma to the brain in comparison to 77% of the MTV-NPs treated mice. In a subcutaneous mouse model, CD40L-MTV-NPs significantly reduced tumor volume in correlation with significant increased caspase-3 activity. Thus, targeted MTV-NPs suggest a novel approach to overcome apoptosis resistance in cancer.
Liad Hinden, Aviram Kogot-Levin, Joseph Tam, and Gil Leibowitz. 2021. “Pathogenesis of diabesity-induced kidney disease: role of kidney nutrient sensing.” The FEBS journal. Abstract
Diabetes kidney disease (DKD) is a major healthcare problem associated with increased risk for developing end-stage kidney disease and high mortality. It is widely accepted that DKD is primarily a glomerular disease. Recent findings however suggest that kidney proximal tubule cells (KPTCs) may play a central role in the pathophysiology of DKD. In diabetes and obesity, KPTCs are exposed to nutrient overload, including glucose, free-fatty acids and amino acids, which dysregulate nutrient and energy sensing by mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 and AMP-activated protein kinase, with subsequent induction of tubular injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. Pharmacological treatments that modulate nutrient sensing and signaling in KPTCs, including cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonists and sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitors, exert robust kidney protective effects. Shedding light on how nutrients are sensed and metabolized in KPTCs and in other kidney domains, and on their effects on signal transduction pathways that mediate kidney injury, is important for understanding the pathophysiology of DKD and for the development of novel therapeutic approaches in DKD and probably also in other forms of kidney disease.
Nethanel Friedman, Arie Dagan, Jhonathan Elia, Sharon Merims, and Ofra Benny. 2021. “Physical properties of gold nanoparticles affect skin penetration via hair follicles.” Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, 36. Abstract
Drug penetration through the skin is significant for both transdermal and dermal delivery. One mechanism that has attracted attention over the last two decades is the transport pathway of nanoparticles via hair follicle, through the epidermis, directly to the pilosebaceous unit and blood vessels. Studies demonstrate that particle size is an important factor for drug penetration. However, in order to gain more information for the purpose of improving this mode of drug delivery, a thorough understanding of the optimal physical particle properties is needed. In this study, we fabricated fluorescently labeled gold nanoparticles (GNP) with a tight control over the size and shape. The effect of the particles' physical parameters on follicular penetration was evaluated histologically. We used horizontal human skin sections and found that the optimal size for polymeric particles is 0.25 $μ$m. In addition, shape penetration experiments revealed gold nanostars' superiority over spherical particles. Our findings suggest the importance of the particles' physical properties in the design of nanocarriers delivered to the pilosebaceous unit.
Nethanel Friedman, Arie Dagan, Jhonathan Elia, Sharon Merims, and Ofra Benny. 2021. “Physical properties of gold nanoparticles affect skin penetration via hair follicles.” Nanomedicine : nanotechnology, biology, and medicine, 36, Pp. 102414. Abstract
Drug penetration through the skin is significant for both transdermal and dermal delivery. One mechanism that has attracted attention over the last two decades is the transport pathway of nanoparticles via hair follicle, through the epidermis, directly to the pilosebaceous unit and blood vessels. Studies demonstrate that particle size is an important factor for drug penetration. However, in order to gain more information for the purpose of improving this mode of drug delivery, a thorough understanding of the optimal physical particle properties is needed. In this study, we fabricated fluorescently labeled gold nanoparticles (GNP) with a tight control over the size and shape. The effect of the particles' physical parameters on follicular penetration was evaluated histologically. We used horizontal human skin sections and found that the optimal size for polymeric particles is 0.25 $μ$m. In addition, shape penetration experiments revealed gold nanostars' superiority over spherical particles. Our findings suggest the importance of the particles' physical properties in the design of nanocarriers delivered to the pilosebaceous unit.
Harald Renz, Claus Bachert, Claudia Berek, Eckard Hamelmann, Francesca Levi-Schaffer, Ulrike Raap, Hans Uwe Simon, Sabine Ploetz, Christian Taube, Peter Valent, David Voehringer, Thomas Werfel, Nan Zhang, and Johannes Ring. 2021. “Physiology and pathology of eosinophils: Recent developments: Summary of the Focus Workshop Organized by DGAKI.” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, 93, 6. Abstract
Over the last century, eosinophils have been regarded ambiguously either as ‘friends' or ‘foes'. Recent developments have greatly enhanced our understanding of the role and function of eosinophils in health and disease. Pathogenic eosinophilic inflammation can lead to severe diseases in various organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract, airways, heart and skin. In a 2-day focus workshop of the German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI), the state of the art was discussed and practical recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilic diseases, with a particular focus on new biologics, such as anti-interleukin 5 and anti-interleukin 5R, were derived.