Abstract:In the current work, prolonged systemic delivery of apomorphine via buccal mucosa was shown to be a promising treatment for Parkinson's disease as a substitute for clinically utilized subcutaneous infusions. Due to extensive ‘first-pass' metabolism, apomorphine is administered parenterally to bypass liver metabolism. Drawbacks of parenteral administration cause low patient compliance and adherence to treatment. On the other hand, while also bypassing the liver, delivery through buccal mucosa has a superior safety profile, is less costly, lacks pain and discomfort, and possesses excellent accessibility, overall augmenting patient compliance. Current in vivo study in pigs showed: (1) steady plateau levels of apomorphine in plasma were obtained 30 min following administration and remained constant for 8 h until a delivery device was removed, (2) bioavailability of apomorphine was 55%–80% as opposed to <2% peroral and (3) simulation of the pharmacokinetic profile obtained in pigs predicted therapeutically relevant levels of apomorphine in human. Furthermore, antipyrine was incorporated as a permeation marker to enable mechanistic investigation of apomorphine release from the delivery device and its permeation through the buccal mucosa. In addition, limitations of an Ussing diffusion chamber as an ex vivo research tool were also discussed.