Abstract:Neutrophils play a crucial role in immune defense against and clearance of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC)-mediated urinary tract infection, the most common bacterial infection in healthy humans. CD300a is an inhibitory receptor that binds phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, presented on the membranes of apoptotic cells. CD300a binding to phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, also known as the “eat me” signal, mediates immune tolerance to dying cells. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that CD300a plays an important role in the neutrophil-mediated immune response to UPEC-induced urinary tract infection. We show that CD300a-deficient neutrophils have impaired phagocytic abilities and despite their increased accumulation at the site of infection, they are unable to reduce bacterial burden in the bladder, which results in significant exacerbation of infection and worse host outcome. Finally, we demonstrate that UPEC's pore forming toxin $\alpha$-hemolysin induces upregulation of the CD300a ligand on infected bladder epithelial cells, signaling to neutrophils to be cleared.