Abstract:Nasal nanovesicular delivery systems (NVS) containing the noncontrolled analgesic drugs Ketoprofen, Butorphanol or Tramadol, incorporated in a phospholipid nanovesicular carrier, were de-signed and investigated. The systems were first characterized for their physicochemical properties. Due to their composition, comprising propylene glycol as a lipid bilayers fluidizer, these systems contain soft vesicles. Pharmacokinetic profiles of Tramadol in plasma and brain and of Ketoprofen in plasma were also assessed. The analgesic effect of each of the three tested drugs was evaluated in the acetic acid mice model for pain. One important result obtained in this work is that the concentration of Tramadol in rats' plasma and brain increased rapidly after administration, reaching a peak value 10 min after administration with a Cmax of 2 to 5 folds greater than that for the oral or nasal non-vesicular treatments, respectively. In the case of Ketoprofen, the peak of the drug level in plasma was measured 10 min post nasal administration in NVS. The Cmax was three-fold higher relative to oral administration of this drug. In the experiment testing analgesia, a rapid and improved analgesia was observed for the tested drugs when delivered nasally in the nanocarrier. On the other hand, a weaker analgesic effect was observed for oral and nasal control systems. This new approach suggests that nasal delivery of non-controlled drugs in soft nanovesicles may open the way for better and noninvasive treatment of severe pain.