Measurements of Cell Death Induced by Snake and Spider's Venoms and Derived Toxins.

Citation:

Yossi Maatuf, Avi Priel, and Philip Lazarovici. 2020. “Measurements of Cell Death Induced by Snake and Spider's Venoms and Derived Toxins.” Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2068, Pp. 239–268.

Abstract:

Snake and spider envenomation have a considerable impact on public health. Their pathology is induced by a variety of toxins composing the venom which induce cytotoxicity to cells of different organs by several cell death pathways. Described in this chapter are methods in vitro used to assess venoms and toxin-induced cell death using mammalian cell cultures. The chapter is divided into five sections: (1) a brief overview of in vitro cytotoxicity and categories of cell death induced by venoms and toxins; (2) a common method to measure necrotic cell death using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release; (3) a flow cytometry method that simultaneously measures necrosis and apoptosis; (4) measurements of nuclear morphology; and (5) measurements of the autophagy following microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) expression, by immunoblotting and by fluorescence microscopy of LC3-positive vesicles, to assess the levels of autophagosomes.