Combined intracranial Acriflavine, temozolomide and radiation extends survival in a rat glioma model.


Riccardo Serra, Antonella Mangraviti, Noah L Gorelick, Tovi Shapira-Furman, Safwan Alomari, Arba Cecia, Namrata Darjee, Henry Brem, Yakir Rottenberg, Abraham J Domb, and Betty Tyler. 2022. “Combined intracranial Acriflavine, temozolomide and radiation extends survival in a rat glioma model.” European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V, 170, Pp. 179–186.


Glioblastomas have been historically difficult to treat with poor long-term survival. With novel strategies focused on targeting hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) regulatory pathways, recent evidence has shown that Acriflavine (ACF) can effectively target glioma invasiveness and recurrence. However, local delivery of ACF and its combinatory effects with Temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation therapy (XRT) have not yet been optimized. In this study we test a novel polymeric matrix that can gradually release ACF at the tumor bed site in combination with systemic TMZ and XRT. In vitro cytotoxicity assays of ACF in combination with TMZ and XRT were performed on rodent and human cell lines with CCK-8 and flow cytometry. In vitro drug release was measured and intracranial safety was assessed in tumor-free animals. Finally, efficacy was assessed in an intracranial gliosarcoma model and combination therapy with TMZ and XRT evaluated. Combination therapy of ACF, TMZ, and XRT was able to reduce cell viability and induce apoptosis in glioma cells. In vitro and in vivo release of ACF was measured in benchtop and animal models. Efficacy was established in an in vivo gliosarcoma model in which intracranial ACF (p < 0.01) significantly improved median survival and the combination therapy of ACF, TMZ and XRT (p < 0.01) significantly improved median survival and led to long-term survival (LTS). We provide evidence that ACF, combined with TMZ and XRT, led to LTS in an intracranial model of rat gliosarcoma. These findings, in combination with the use of a novel polymeric matrix that allows more gradual drug delivery, constitute a first step in the translation of this novel strategy to human use.