. 2021. “
This review focuses on the improved topical treatment of various medical skin conditions by the use of drugs delivered from carriers containing phospholipid soft vesicles. Topical drug delivery has many advantages over other ways of administration, having increased patient compliance, avoiding the first-pass effect following oral drug administration or not requesting multiple doses administration. However, the skin barrier prevents the access of the applied drug, affecting its therapeutic activity. Carriers containing phospholipid soft vesicles are a new approach to enhance drug delivery into the skin and to improve the treatment outcome. These vesicles contain molecules that have the property to fluidize the phospholipid bilayers generating the soft vesicle and allowing it to penetrate into the deep skin layers. Ethosomes, glycerosomes and transethosomes are soft vesicles containing ethanol, glycerol or a mixture of ethanol and a surfactant, respectively. We review a large number of publications on the research carried out in vitro, in vivo in animal models and in humans in clinical studies, with compositions containing various active molecules for treatment of skin medical conditions including skin infections, skin inflammation, psoriasis, skin cancer, acne vulgaris, hair loss, psoriasis and skin aging.
. 2020. “
This is a comprehensive review on the use of phospholipid nanovesicles for dermal/transdermal and nasal drug administration. Phospholipid-based vesicular carriers have been widely investigated for enhanced drug delivery via dermal/transdermal routes. Classic phospholipid vesicles, liposomes, do not penetrate the deep layers of the skin, but remain confined to the upper stratum corneum. The literature describes several approaches with the aim of altering the properties of these vesicles to improve their penetration properties. Transfersomes and ethosomes are the most investigated penetration-enhancing phospholipid nanovesicles, obtained by the incorporation of surfactant edge activators and high concentrations of ethanol, respectively. These two types of vesicles differ in terms of their structure, characteristics, mechanism of action and mode of application on the skin. Edge activators contribute to the deformability and elasticity of transfersomes, enabling them to penetrate through pores much smaller than their own size. The ethanol high concentration in ethosomes generates a soft vesicle by fluidizing the phospholipid bilayers, allowing the vesicle to penetrate deeper into the skin. Glycerosomes and transethosomes, phospholipid vesicles containing glycerol or a mixture of ethanol and edge activators, respectively, are also covered. This review discusses the effects of edge activators, ethanol and glycerol on the phospholipid vesicle, emphasizing the differences between a soft and an elastic nanovesicle, and presents their different preparation methods. To date, these differences have not been comparatively discussed. The review presents a large number of active molecules incorporated in these carriers and investigated in vitro, in vivo or in clinical human tests.
. 2021. “
Our goal was to measure the absolute differential abundance of key drug transporters in human epileptogenic brain tissue and to compare them between patients and at various distances from the epileptogenic zone within the same patient. Transporter protein abundance was quantified in brain tissue homogenates from patients who underwent epilepsy surgery, using targeted proteomics, and correlations with clinical and tissue characteristics were assessed. Fourteen brain samples (including four epileptogenic hippocampal samples) were collected from nine patients. Among the quantifiable drug transporters, the abundance (median, range) ranked: breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2/BCRP; 0.55, 0.01-3.26 pmol/g tissue) > P-glycoprotein (ABCB1/MDR1; 0.30, 0.02-1.15 pmol/g tissue) > equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (SLC29A1/ENT1; 0.06, 0.001-0.35 pmol/g tissue). The ABCB1/ABCG2 ratio (mean 0.27, range 0.08-0.47) was comparable with literature values from nonepileptogenic brain tissue (mean 0.5-0.8). Transporter abundance was lower in the hippocampi than in the less epileptogenic neocortex of the same patients. ABCG2/BCRP and ABCB1/MDR1 expression strongly correlated with that of glucose transporter 1 (SLC2A1/GLUT1) (r = 0.97, p < 0.001; r = 0.90, p < 0.01, respectively). Low transporter abundance was found in patients with overt vascular pathology, whereas the highest abundance was seen in a sample with normally appearing blood vessels. In conclusion, drug transporter abundance highly varies across patients and between epileptogenic and less epileptogenic brain tissue of the same patient. The strong correlation in abundance of ABCB1/MDR1, ABCG2/BCRP, and SLC2A1/GLUT1 suggests variation in the content of the functional vasculature within the tissue samples. The epileptogenic tissue can be depleted of key drug transport mechanisms, warranting consideration when selecting treatments for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.
. 2021. “